Also known as chloasma or melasma, the cloth on the face is a macular skin lesion (spot), which appears due to a hyperpigmentation of brown to brown color, produced by the hyperactivity of cells known as melanocytes, frequently located on the forehead., cheekbones and nose, being precipitated by constant exposure to the sun, which increases in summer and in geographic regions of the tropics.
To understand more about this pathology, it is necessary to know that the characteristic color of the skin is determined by two main pigments: hemoglobin, present in erythrocytes (red blood cells), responsible for the degree of pallor or redness of the person and, the melanin produced by melanocytes , which generates the proper hue to the skin (white, brown, etc.), so that the greater or lesser degree of appearance of this element varies with ethnic groups, areas of the body and expose yourself to sunlight.
In this sense, the production of melanin serves as the skin's natural barrier to reduce the harmful action of the sun's ultraviolet rays.
The origin of melasma
It is also worth explaining that in some cases, and by multiple mechanisms, the skin can produce an excess of melanin, such as the appearance of the cloth on the face (melasma) or hyperpigmentation of the skin in the areas most exposed to sunlight.
The cloth on the face is often related to pregnancy and in this case it is known as a pregnancy mask or pregnancy mask. It not only occurs in pregnant women, but also in men, but with a much lower frequency compared to women.
In women there is another reason that generates this pathology outside of pregnancy and it is the consumption of oral contraceptives. As for postmenopausal patients, it can be generated by the use of hormone replacement therapy, which should be a risk factor to take into account.
There are also other drugs capable of producing the cloth on the face, such as some antiepileptic drugs, so the risk-benefit must be weighed, since treatment often cannot be withdrawn.
In other cases, this condition can appear as an allergic reaction to medications and cosmetics, such as applying makeup. Even nutritional deficiencies of iron, some proteins, amino acids and vitamins of the B complex may be related to cause chloasma. So in this case, the treatment would be aimed at solving these nutritional deficiencies.
Another aspect that must be taken into account is that if you have risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, a family history of chronic metabolic diseases, and alterations in laboratory parameters (hyperglycemia, thyroid hormones, etc.) that guide diseases such as diabetes or, thyroid pathologies and liver dysfunctions, it is important to inquire and consult with the doctor, since they may be related to melasma by generating increases in the levels of Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, with the consequent generation of hyperactivity in the production of melanin.
Cloth treatment on the face
In many cases, the treatment of melasma can be complex because it is required, in the first place, to detect the underlying etiological cause, treat it and, simultaneously, maintain a dermatological treatment that allows removing the greatest amount of excess pigments, since not always the natural tone of the skin is restored to 100%, because until now, some treatments have been able to improve the tone and keep it regulated or controlled. For control, prevention tools are essential, especially in people with predisposing factors.
1. Sun protection
Additionally, it is recommended to use sunscreen according to the type of skin, as well as means of protection (loose light clothing, hats, umbrellas, etc.) and avoid overexposure to the sun, especially around noon.
2. Dermatological treatments
Regarding the medication available, there are also drugs that produce an effect known as peeling (removal of the superficial layers of the affected skin in order to promote homogeneous growth with the same tone), which help to eliminate pigment.
In the therapy to be used there is a wide range of medications depending on their use or application of the specialist that is chosen. Generally, nowadays a combination of treatments is applied, where, on the one hand, they help to depigment recently appearing spots, while controlling the production of melanin by melanocytes (known as lightening or hypopigmenting treatments).
As for topical treatments, in addition to depigmenting and sunscreen, in some cases the additional use of intense pulsed light is required and even the use of laser as another option that can offer satisfactory results from an aesthetic point of view.
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